DoD Biodiversity Conservation Handbook
Chapters:Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11IntroductionCase StudiesAcknowledgements
Chapter 5: Balancing Biodiversity Conservation With Multiple Uses

Hunting, Fishing and Recreational Uses

Multiple Use as a National Policy
Demand for wood products for the post-World War II housing boom coincided and competed with an increased demand for recreation and wilderness and a concern for environmental values. These changes in public attitudes and the need to balance competing demands led to the concept of multiple- use which was declared national policy in two Congressional acts – the Multiple-Use Sustained Yield Act of 1960, which applied to the Forest Service, and the Classification and Multiple Use Act of 1964, which applied to the Bureau of Land Management.

The restoration of military lands and conversion to forest brought an increase in wildlife populations, and so hunting was introduced on some installations to assist in controlling populations of deer and other game species. Consistent hunting policies did not exist for military installations until the passage of the Engle Act2 in 1958. The act tried to resolve basic conflicts between the military and civilian conservation agencies by requiring that all hunting, fishing, and trapping on military installations be conducted in accordance with state and federal laws, and under the appropriate state licenses.

On most installations, commanders restricted hunting privileges to the military and their dependants until passage of the Sikes Act of 1960, which authorized public recreational access and the collection of fees by installations for that privilege. This led to the widespread opening of military areas to public recreation. Although outdoor recreation included camping, picnicking, boating, swimming, and a host of other outdoor activities, hunting and fishing were in greatest demand by the public at that time. Fees collected for hunting and fishing activities are used to cover administrative expenses and support conservation initiatives. Unlike forestry and agricultural lease fees, hunting and fishing fees must only be used for funding activities on the installation from which they were collected.

Proceed to Next Section: Managing for Biodiversity as an Added Multiple Use

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About This Chapter's Author
Dorothy M. Gibb is the Technical Director at A.H. Environmental Consultants.

Joseph S. Ferris is the Principal Environmental Consultant at Parsons Brinckerhoff.

Literature Cited
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